By Vedant Mehta

Albert Einstein is one of the most well-known physicists throughout history. Among other things, he is also known for formulating the world-famous equation E=mc2, the equation that relates that energy and mass as not separate, but rather a single entity. This equation opened doors to numerous scientific advances.

The year 1905 is considered to be “Einstein’s miraculous year.” Back then, a 26-year-old Einstein published four groundbreaking papers in Annalen der Physik and his Ph.D. dissertation that shook the foundations of many scientific theories. The original texts were written in German, however the weblinks are translated into English. This the time when Einstein:

Challenged the wave theory of light and suggested that the behavior of light could also be represented as a stream of particles – photoelectric effect. For this study, he received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics with a 100% share. On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light, Annalen der Physik 17: 132–148,1905

Submitted his Ph.D. dissertation in which he showed how to calculate Avogadro’s number and the size of molecules. A New Determination of Molecular Dimensions

Depicted a model for Brownian motion. On the Movement of Small Particles Suspended in Stationary Liquids Required by the Molecular-Kinetic Theory of Heat, Annalen der Physik 17: 549–560,1905

Invented the theory of special relativity in which he postulated that the speed of light is constant in vacuum or empty space. On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies, Annalen der Physik 17: 891– 921, 1905

Related mass with energy by publishing the most famous equation of physics: the E=mc2 Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?, Annalen der Physik 18: 639–641, 1905

On November 21, 1905, exactly 113 years ago today, Einstein’s most famous equation in physics the E=mc2, was published.

In the original paper, energy was referred to as L and vacuum speed of light as V. At the end

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